Black currant Tisel: characteristics of the variety and features of cultivation
Black currant Tisel (Tisel) is famous for the benefits of berries and high productivity. About the description of the plant, as well as its general characteristics and agrotechnics of growing, read on.
The bush is tall, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The crown is highly thickened, consists of upright branches of different ages. Annual shoots are green. Branches that have reached the age of 3 years, lignified, are painted in a light brown shade.
The kidneys are ovoid, of medium size. Flower ovaries - light pink, with curved sepals. Leaf plates have 5 blades, with sharpening at the ends. Their color is light green, the surface is slightly wrinkled.
Did you know? It is generally accepted that currant fruits have a standard color - red, white and black. But there are much more colors, found in nature - yellow, purple, green and even orange berry.
The variety was obtained thanks to the self-pollination of Titania's currant bush. He was bred at the Polish Institute of Horticulture and Floriculture in Skierniewice. This variety is distinguished by large fruits and their universal purpose. The berry variety is often used for making juices and jam.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Tisel is an early ripening culture. Its fruits begin to sing in late June - early July. Berries have a weight of up to 4 g. The skin is black, with a glossy sheen, compacted. The pulp has a loose structure, the content of seeds in it is average. The shape of the fruit is spherical. According to reviews by gardeners involved in agricultural technology of the variety in question, the berries have a good, sweet taste, with a touch of sour. During the season, up to 5 kg of fruits are harvested from one shrub. Productivity from 1 ha of plantings is up to 18 tons.
|Vitamin content||Nutrient Balance|
Nutritional value of fruits per 100 g:
- calories - 44 kcal;
- proteins - 1 g;
- fats - 0.4 g;
- carbohydrates - 7.3 g.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of the Tisel variety, there are:
- frost resistance up to –25 ° С;
- good indicator of resistance to drought;
- berries are not prone to cracking;
- excellent fruit transportability;
- there is immunity to most fungal infections.
The downside when growing a crop can be average resistance to diseases such as rust and powdery mildew. The shrub can also be invaded by aphids or buds.
Saplings for planting in the soil should be bought in a specialized nursery or grown independently. In order for the bush to grow and develop, you should carefully approach the process of choosing planting material. Do not buy sluggish plants that have traces of diaper rash or rot. The aerial part of the seedling should be at least 30 cm, and the root shoots - 20 cm.
Immediately before planting, rhizome growth should be stimulated. To do this, prepare a solution of the drug "Kornevin" (1 g per 1 liter of water). The roots of the plant are lowered into the prepared liquid and they are kept there for 3-4 hours.
If a gardener wants to get a seedling on his own, he can grow a new plant from cuttings that are harvested in the fall. In late September - early October, preparation and planting of material is carried out:
- From shoots that have reached 3-4 years of age, annual branches up to 20 cm long are cut.
- Two oblique cuts are made on each handle: one above the upper kidney, and the second above the bottom.
- A plot of land selected for planting cuttings is loosened with fertilizer in the form of 5 kg of humus per 1 m².
- The branches are stuck to a depth of 1 cm in the prepared soil.
- The site is mulched with peat or straw.
- Cuttings are covered with a film.
With the advent of the spring thaw, shelter is removed. During the summer season, cuttings are watered 2-3 times a month and the soil near them is loosened. In autumn, plants form a good root system and will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
Seat selection and landing
The area for planting currant shrubs should have good lighting, then with the development of the plant there will be no problems with poor productivity and growth retardation. It is better to choose a territory from the south or southeast side of the house. Draft is also undesirable for the culture: it provokes an invasion of pests and can cause currants to freeze out in the winter cold.
Important! Due to the fact that the currant rhizome can grow 2 m in depth, you need to choose a site for its growth with a depth of ground water of at least 2 m, otherwise this factor will cause rhizome rot and death of the plant.
A landing pit is prepared 7-14 days before the procedure. Dig a hole to a depth of 40 cm, its width should be 50 cm.
The upper, fertile soil layer, in the amount of 10 kg is mixed with:
- 10 kg of peat;
- 5 kg of manure;
- 200 g of wood ash;
- 20 g of superphosphate.
Planting a seedling in the ground:
- Loosen the substrate in the hole, form it in the form of a slide.
- Introduce planting material into the pit.
- Gently spread the roots on an earthen mound.
- Cover the pit with earth.
- Tamp the near-trunk circle and water the plant with 10 liters of water.
- Mulch the ground with peat or sawdust.
Currant bushes are unpretentious to care. The plant needs to be watered only 2-3 times a month. Water is brought into specially dug trenches located at a distance of 20-30 cm from the basal neck. The amount of liquid should be from 5 to 15 liters.
After each irrigation and rainfall, the soil near the trunk is loosened 3-4 cm in depth. This procedure will provide the rhizome with oxygen and avoid debate.
To maintain optimal humidity conditions for the shrub and get rid of weed grass, once a month the soil near the trunk is mulched. During the first 2 years of growth, the plant does not need fertilizers, because the nutrients laid in the pit during planting will be enough for this period.Starting from 3 years, make such top dressings:
- After the spring thaw, liquid nitrogen fertilizer consisting of: 30 g of urea and 10 l of water. It is introduced into a trench dug near the trunk of a plant. For one bush, a solution of 10 l is enough.
- In summer organic top dressing from: 2 kg of manure and 10 l of water. This amount of fertilizer is enough for one shrub.
- In mid-autumn, fertilizer is being digged. On 1 m² plot you will need: 5 kg of humus, 300 g of wood ash.
Pest and Disease Control
Most often, currant shrubs affect aphids and buds. Aphid is a small insect, green in color, which feeds on the juice of the plant. It is not difficult to notice the pest invasion: twisted leaf plates with a whitish, sticky coating appear on the infected bush. Aphid pest leads to loss of productivity, and also provokes the drying of leaves and branches of the crop.
- Manual cleaning of the affected parts of the bush.
- Spraying with an ash solution, which is prepared from: 300 g of ash, 100 g of liquid soap and 10 l of warm water.
- Treatment with Actellik - 2 ml per 10 l of water.
- Irrigation with a solution made from: 70 ml of 10% ammonia, 50 ml of liquid soap and 10 l of water.
Female mite buds lay offspring in the buds of the bush. Newly found individuals are spread throughout the plant. They feed on the juices of leaves and flower ovaries. The invasion of ticks causes the withering of branches of culture, and also inhibits the overall development of the bush.
The fight against the kidney tick:
- Spraying with garlic solution. For this you need: 200 g of grated garlic, insist in 1 liter of water. For processing using a solution of: 50 ml of the obtained liquid and 10 l of water.
- Means "Karbofos" - 1 g per 10 liters of water.
The most common diseases affecting the currant bush are: rust and powdery mildew. Rust manifests itself in the form of randomly arranged brown spots and stripes on leaf plates. As time passes, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off. The plant begins to languish and loses productivity.
- Treatment with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid - 300 g per 10 liters of water.
- Treatment with Topaz fungicide - 2 ml per 10 l of water.
Powdery mildew is one of the varieties of infections that the spherocotex provokes. The effect of the disease is easy to notice by white plaque on the leaves and fruits. As the disease progresses, it leads to complete wilting of the branches and a sharp decrease in productivity, the index of frost resistance of the shrub also drops, which can lead to its death in the winter.
Powdery Mildew Control:
- Removing affected areas on the bush and burning them.
- The use of a 3% solution of copper sulfate - 300 g per 10 liters of water.
- Use of Topaz fungicide - 2 ml per 10 l of water.
Did you know? In the epics of ancient Russia, the name of the river Smorodinovka is often found. According to some historians, the Moscow River was so called, due to the fact that many currant bushes grew on both sides of its banks.
Prevention of diseases and harmful insects:
- timely cleaning of the site from fallen leaves and weeds;
- digging soil near the trunk;
- timely trimming;
- spring treatment of shrubs with 1% copper solution (100 g per 10 liters of water).
Trimming and shaping a bush
Forming pruning is carried out during the first 4 years after planting a seedling:
- In the first year, 4 branches are left, which are cut at a distance of 4-5 buds from the ground.
- In the 2nd year, the bush will already consist of 8 shoots, the tops of which are cut by 15 cm.
- In the 3rd year, you need to get rid of all zero shoots and thin out 2-year-old branches. All tops must be cut by 15 cm.
- For the 4th year, the pruning process is identical to the 3rd year.
Starting from the 5th year, sanitary removal of branches is carried out annually. The gardener must get rid of all thickening, affected by the disease or pest shoots.Fig. 1. Pruning currants_a - an annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
Before the onset of frost, you need to carefully prepare the site. It is removed from vegetable debris, the remains of weeds are pulled out. The procedure will help to avoid the propagation of fungal spores, as well as prevent the wintering of insect larvae in fallen leaf plates.In areas where the climate is warm, shelter for the winter is not required. But in regions with a temperate and harsh climate, in which there is a decrease in temperature to –25 ° С and lower, it is necessary to protect shrubs from freezing. To do this, they are bent to the ground and fixed using special brackets. Top cover with spruce branches, burlap or other material.
Harvesting and storage
Harvested as it ripens. Berries are picked in wooden, plastic or paper containers. Fruit harvesting is carried out in sunny weather in the morning or in the evening. They are torn off together with the stalks and carefully folded into prepared containers for storage.
Fresh fruits retain marketability for 48 hours.If it is necessary to preserve the berries for a longer period, they are picked a little unripe. The collection is placed in hermetic packaging and placed in a refrigerator. The product is stored for 3 weeks under temperature conditions from 0 ° C to + 4 ° C. Gardeners who want to cultivate blackcurrant on a plot should pay attention to the Tisel variety. It is unpretentious to care, and also has immunity to many diseases and resistance to frost.