Pear-shaped dogwood: benefits and harms, description, cultivation agricultural technique
Pear-shaped dogwood is one of the most popular plants among gardeners, with proper care it gives a generous harvest. The fruits are characterized by a bright color, a pleasant taste, they contain vitamins and minerals. To get a generous crop, you need to know how to properly care, crop and water, protect from pests and diseases, prepare this species for winter.
Description pear-shaped dogwood
According to the description, this plant is of medium growth strength, develops in the form of small trees or shrubs, whose height is not higher than 5.5 m. Branches are spreading, oval leaves, bright green in color, with veins, located opposite. Young shoots are bright, brown in color with a green tint. Dogwood blooms early in early spring. The flowers are small, collected in an inflorescence of an umbrella, yellow.
The color of the berries varies depending on the variety, starting from bright yellow to dark burgundy. The fruits are smooth, oblong pear-shaped, with a stone inside and a pleasant aroma.The plant is characterized by a life expectancy and fruiting, which begins from the 5-6th year and lasts up to 300 years. It is characterized by generous crops, pest resistance, frost resistance, tolerates drought and is unpretentious to the soil. It develops and bears fruit in the shade. The variety affects the size and type of the fruit, taste.
Did you know? Dogwood fruits contain twice as much vitamin C as oranges.
Varieties suitable for our climatic conditions:
- Vladimirsky - high-yielding, bright red fruits, sweet and sour;
- Vydubetskiy - high-yielding, berries are dark red, weighing up to 6.5 g;
- Gentle - yellow fruits ripen in late August;
- Firefly - characterized by large bright red fruits that ripen in August;
- Elegant - gives an early harvest, the berries are dark red in color.
Dogwood fruits are distinguished by many beneficial properties due to their composition. They contain vitamins C, PP and beta-carotene. In addition, berries contain macronutrients - calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium. Small berries weigh up to 4 hectares, contain glucose, essential oils, fructose, organic acids, tannins, dyes and nitrogen substances.
Useful and healing properties
Berries are used for some diseases. The fruits contain ascorbic acid, their use in the autumn and winter strengthens the body.
- Dogwood is known for such beneficial properties:
- Contains pectin, which is useful for cleansing the body.
- Berries have a positive effect on blood pressure, help relieve headaches.
- Strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
- Improves a metabolism.
- Useful for sight.
- Helps with diarrhea.
- It removes bile.
- It is used for diabetes, skin problems, edema of the lower extremities.
- Cleans the air of bacteria, and also repels insects.
Dogwood is consumed both raw and subjected to various culinary processing - they prepare jam, jams, jam, syrups. Wine and liqueurs, tinctures, tea, juices, jelly, decoctions are also made on the basis of berries. The fruits have a pleasant taste.Juice from cornel fruit invigorates, tones the body.
To make tea, take 10 g of dried fruit, which is brewed in 1 cup of boiling water. This amount is designed for 1 day. If you want to cook one serving, use 5 g of drying. To make jelly, take 3 tbsp. l fresh or soaked berries in 1 glass of water. If you replace morning coffee with an infusion of 1–2 tablespoons of dogwood berries, which must be soaked for 6 hours, you will have a good mood and tone for the whole day.
Important! Useful properties are also distinguished by the bark, roots and leaves of this plant.
Dogwood leaves contain tannins, bark and roots - glycoside and horsemeat.
Here are some useful recipes based on them:
- Useful for the disorder of a decoction of fruits and leaves, which is prepared from 2 tbsp. leaves and fruits in a glass of water, boil for 10 minutes, then insist 8 hours. Before taking the fruit must be kneading. Use 0.5 cup 3 times a day.
- Tincture of 1 tbsp. chopped leaves with branches in 1 glass of water has a choleretic and diuretic effect.
- Infusion from the bark was previously treated for malaria.
To get the benefit, you need to know that the leaves are harvested in June - July, the fruits are harvested after ripening, the roots in spring or autumn.
- Dogwood fruits have some contraindications:
- Due to the high content of acids, which generally have a positive effect on digestion, it is contraindicated for people with high acidity of the stomach, with an ulcer.
- It is better to limit the use of berries to those who suffer from insomnia, experiencing emotional overexcitation.
- If there is a tendency to constipation, it is better not to eat a lot of fruits or products prepared on their basis.
Did you know? In the old days they knew about the beneficial properties of dogwood. Crimean residents prepared lavash from pureed fruit, which was stored in rolls and used to treat scurvy, purulent wounds.
Planting and breeding species
In the wild, dogwood breeds by self-seeding. But plants develop slowly, bear fruit later.
At home, you can use several methods: reproduction by the bones, processes, by vaccination, layering:
- To obtain a large number of seedlings, it is better to use seed reproduction. This method of growing is a time consuming and costly process. The bones are harvested in the autumn, then they need to be stratified - stored in wet sawdust for a year to obtain a large number of seedlings. After a year, the plants need to be planted. Such trees begin to bear fruit in the 5–6th year.
- For breeding dogwood, shoots are used - a young shoot that grows from the root. To do this, the shoots are separated from the mother bush and transplanted after extensive watering. This method can be used both in spring and autumn.
- Breeding by layering is also practiced. For this, young stems are suitable. Laying should be done in early spring, as soon as the soil is thawed. Dig and fertilize the soil. Young shoots need to be sprinkled with earth, with repeated germination they are separated and transplanted.
- There is also a vaccination propagation method. For this method, two-year-old seedlings that have grown from seed are suitable. You need to be vaccinated in the spring. The stock is horizontally cut with a sharp knife and a horizontal cut is made. The graft is cut so that the cut is in the form of a wedge below the kidney. Gently but severely inject the scion into the stock. The junction is wrapped with film, garden var is applied to the top. When the elements are fused, the film is cut off.
Dogwood does not need careful care. The ground under young seedlings must be regularly weeded and loosened., but not deeper than 10–15 cm, the roots lie at a depth of 25–30 cm. When forming, cut off excess growth.
In the early years, the plant is fertilized with nitrogen for the growth of leaves and branches in a proportion of 4 kg per hundred square meters. You can also use diluted humus, which is added when watering. It is necessary to periodically add lime, which contains a lot of potassium. Also in the fall it is worth treating with a copper preparation.
Watering plants is necessary in a dry, hot season. Culture does not like excess water. For one plant, 2 buckets of water are enough, which are poured into a dug hole under the root or just around the trunk. Pay attention to the age of the tree, what level of groundwater, soil features.
In the autumn, sanitary pruning of the tree is carried out. It is necessary to carefully examine and remove the shoots that are located below the rootstock. The formation of the crown is not necessary. In the spring, dead branches are removed. If the tree is more than 15 years old, anti-aging pruning is performed. For dogwood, winter poses no threat. But young plants need to be taken care of. It is better to cover their trunks with agrofibre, and mulch the root circle with leaves.
Collection and storage of cornel fruit
Dogwood is harvested when the fruits ripen. This occurs in late summer - early fall. If the berry is dark burgundy and soft, it means that it is overripe, and it must be used immediately for food. After harvesting, it is necessary to sort the berries, focusing on color and elasticity.
You can store in the refrigerator for 10-12 days at t no more than + 5 ° C in a plastic bowl or bag with ventilation. Wash immediately before use. For harvesting for winter, cornel berries are frozen, dried, dried or sprinkled with sugar. Freezing storage not only preserves the majority of nutrients and vitamins, but also improves the taste.
Before drying, the fruits are sorted, washed and spread in one layer. Dry in a dry, ventilated place. For drying use ripe fruits. Sorted, washed fruits are covered with sugar and left for a day in the room. Syrup is drained, which is used to make compotes and other dishes. The berries are poured with syrup from water and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, heated, not brought to a boil, and left for 10 minutes.
Then it is decanted and placed in the oven at t 70 ° С for 20 minutes, allowed to cool and packaged in jars, hermetically sealed. The berries are ground with sugar, after washing, removing the seeds and drying, in a 1: 2 ratio. Store in the refrigerator on the top shelf for no more than 1 year.The most useful storage method is sugar sprinkling.. Store in a cool, dry place.
Important! Plants for which constant care is carried out are not ill.
Pests and diseases
Dogwood is exposed to such diseases:
- Powdery mildew - both young and adult trees get sick. Manifestations are: white, brown, bordered or in the form of a viral mosaic of spots. The treatment is carried out using ground sulfur by spraying on the leaves. The leaves are also sprayed with diluted rotted cow manure. Remove and burn fallen affected leaves.
- Rustthat the fungus causes. It is better to remove the affected branches. Healthy spray with Bordeaux liquid. To prepare, dissolve 100 g of copper sulfate in 1 l of hot water, add 4 l of cold water. Separately, 100 g of lime is quenched in 1 liter of hot water, 4 liters of cold water are added. The solution of vitriol is introduced into the lime solution and mixed. Also, for the treatment of plants using chemical preparations, which are used according to the instructions.
- With prolonged storage, the fruits are affected fruit rot.
- Pests: microflood, multiflorous butterflies, sawfly, cornel moth, American white butterfly. When it appears, it is necessary to spray with a solution of lime in a proportion of 100 g per 5 liters of water, or with chemical preparations according to the instructions.
Pear-shaped dogwood will become not only an addition to the garden, but with proper care it will give a generous harvest of fruits. The plant grows and develops in the shade. Depending on the design of the site or garden, you can form it in the form of a bush or tree. Dogwood is not whimsical to care for, resistant to diseases, tolerates cold, does not need constant watering.