Edible honeysuckle Sibiryachka - features and characteristics
Modern gardeners are increasingly including in the list of crops growing in their garden, honeysuckle - a perennial shrub that is known for its useful, and as a result of breeding, delicious berries. Today, everyone can choose the desired variety of this plant for their own garden, focusing on the timing of ripening of the fruits of the culture, care features, winter hardiness, taste. According to the listed characteristics, the Sibiryachka honeysuckle variety is the leader, read more about its features below.
Description of the variety of honeysuckle Sibiryachka
This breeding variety of honeysuckle is a real find for the gardener, due to its versatility, the culture harmoniously combines decorative and fruiting properties. Its bright appearance, decorated with dark blue fruits, will complement your garden plot in an original way. The berries themselves are edible, tasty and healthy, they can be used for culinary, medical or decorative purposes.
A variety of "Sibiryachka" was obtained as a result of selection work, which was carried out in the Bakcharsky stronghold of northern gardening, in the village. Bakchar, Tomsk region (Russia). The originators of the variety are N.V. Savinkova, I.K. Gidzyuk, A.T. Tkacheva.
Breeders crossed the selected material of Kamchatka Honeysuckle with Turchaninov Honeysuckle. The result was the appearance in 1972 of the varietal variety "Sibiryachka". Only in the year 2000 this variety was entered into the State Register, and after its mass cultivation began.
Did you know? Due to the fact that the bark on the shrubs of many varieties of honeysuckle is peeling, the people called the culture “shameless”.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Honeysuckle "Sibiryachka" is a medium-sized shrub (up to 1.5 m), the stage of formation of a hemispherical and medium-thickened crown of which occurs in mid-late May.
The variety is easily recognized by the following description:
- brown medium shoots on which the bark is peeling;
- branches that are widely directed to the sides. This feature contributes to the fact that the diameter of the shrub can reach 2-3 m;
- horizontally directed, lowered and curved young shoots;
- anthocyanin strips that are localized on the shoots, especially those that are well lit by the sun;
- oval shape of apical kidneys;
- the inclined direction of the axillary buds toward the shoots;
- oval leaves with heart-shaped bases and blunt-pointed or rounded apexes that abundantly cover the shrub. Light green foliage slightly lowered, has medium sizes;
- near the stalk you can see thin and short petioles;
- inflorescences, which consist of two large pale yellow flowers. Semi-closed flower petals, surrounded by awl-like stipules, with a tubular funnel-shaped corolla (2 cm long). Culture blooms in late April – mid May;
- large, sweet and aromatic fruits, painted in dark purple and covered with a light waxy coating. The mass of one berry ranges from 1.1–1.4 g, and the length reaches 2–2.5 cm. Ripening occurs in June-July;
- berries of this variety are easily distinguished from other varieties by spindle-shaped, or elongated-drop-shaped, slightly curved shape. They ripen on elongated stalks.
The popularity of this variety is largely determined by the speed of fruiting: already in the second year after planting, the Sibiryachka will delight the gardener with its fruits, which have not only bright decorative, but also excellent taste characteristics.Type of fruiting - at the base of annual branches.
Honeysuckle productivity grows with the shrub itself. So, as a result of the first fruiting, up to 500 g of berries or 1.7 tons per hectare of planting is collected from one plant, subject to a planting pattern of 3 × 1 m. From a 10-year-old honeysuckle, you can collect 3.7 kg of fruits (8 tons per hectare). The peak yield of Sibiryachki, according to gardeners, falls on a 14-year-old age - 4.5 kg per plant or 15 tons per hectare.
Did you know? As a result of heat treatment, the berries lose their beneficial properties, but they remain as tasty and aromatic as fresh ones.
Berries of this variety are qualitatively different in their chemical composition, which is rich in:
- simple sugar - 8.2%;
- acids (ascorbic, nicotinic, folic) - 1.9%;
- vitamin C - 32%.
The calorie content of honeysuckle berries is 41.2 kcal / 100 g:
- protein 0 g;
- fat 0 g;
- carbohydrates 8.5 g.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Bakcharsky variety has its pros and cons. So, the obvious advantages of the variety are:
- early maturity of the culture: you can enjoy its delicious fruits in the second year after planting;
- fruiting stability: you will receive a harvest annually, moreover, the number of fruits collected from the bush will increase every year;
- excellent palatability: berries received the highest tasting score - 5 points. Their flesh is tender and juicy, the taste is pleasant, sour-sweet, with a predominance of sweet;
- simultaneous ripening: all berries reach ripeness at one time, which allows the demon of problems to harvest at a time. Berries easily come off the stalk, not letting in juice and practically without crumbling;
- early ripening;
- the versatility of both the shrub itself (ornamental and fruit plant), and fruits: you can eat fresh fruits (alone or as part of different dishes), or you can use them to make compotes, jams, juices, preserves, mashed potatoes;
- large berries;
- winter hardiness of breeding variety. It was not for nothing that the variety got such a name - it is able to withstand even -50ºС, and its ovaries do not crumble at -7ºС.
- the plant belongs to unpretentious and undemanding in care;
- Sibiryachka is a long-lived culture. Subject to the simple rules of agricultural technology and cultivation, shrubs of this variety will bear fruit up to 30 years.
Important! A period of spring thaw, when severe frosts recede for some time, is considered dangerous for Sibiryachka. During warming, the crop may have time to bloom, and this is fraught with the death of the crop and shedding of the buds when the frosts return.
- The disadvantages of the variety include:
- the tenderness of the fruits, as a result of which they wrinkle and do not retain freshness for long;
- average transportability, due to the thinness of their peel, as well as the tenderness and juiciness of the pulp;
- slight shedding of ripened fruits, if you do not start their timely collection;
- difficult harvesting due to curved branches of the bush;
- not always dry collection, which is provoked by the thinness of the skin. This leads to damage to the berry mass.
The agronomic measures necessary for the variety come down to the right choice of seat, the organization of the planting and care procedure itself, which consists of watering, fertilizing, pest control, as well as pruning and shaping the bush.
Due to the fact that the culture will occupy a seat for many years, it’s worth choosing carefully, taking into account such features as lightening and pH level.
If you don’t want to have problems during the cultivation of Sibiryachki and want to get a stable crop, select for the plant well-lit areas that are protected from drafts and sudden gusts of wind. From a lack of light, the shoots of the shrub will begin to stretch in length, and the buds will form with decelerations.Wind and drafts can cause shedding of flowers and ovaries, and, accordingly, the death of the crop.
Sibiryachka soil prefers loamy and moderately moist. Marshy and acidic soils negatively affect the yield of the plant - they reduce performance.
Landing and care
The optimum planting time for Sibiryachki is autumn, some two to three weeks before the start of frosts (mid-September-October). You can plant a crop in the spring (first decade of April), but then the seedlings will not take root well.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to cut the seedling shoots before planting or immediately after it. Such a procedure will lead to poor survival of the plant and late fruiting.
The landing procedure includes the following mandatory steps:
- Preparation of planting holes with parameters 40 × 40 × 40. In each dug hole you need to add organic matter (humus, compost, peat) - 1 bucket and phosphate-potassium fertilizers (50 g each). The distance between the holes should be 1.5 m, and between the rows - 2 m.
- Immediately before planting, you need to pour a bucket of water into the hole and wait until it is absorbed by the soil.
- In the center of the pit, it is necessary to form a mound of fertile soil and plant a seedling on it. When placing the seedling in the hole, carefully straighten the root system.
- The pit needs to be filled up and well compacted the earth around a trunk of a sapling.
- Immediately after planting, the plant is watered again and the soil around it is mulched, using humus or peat as mulch.
Sibiryachka does not tolerate drought, therefore it should be regularly watered. Without water, the plant will look oppressed and you should not expect a good harvest from it or high decorative qualities. As soon as the earthen lump under the culture dries up to 20-30 cm, you need to bring a bucket of water. The bush prefers not only watering, but also spraying foliage with shoots. A day after watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil near the shrub so that oxygen enters the roots.
Mandatory honeysuckle care measures include fertilizer. Sibiryachka receives the first portion of top dressing during planting. This is enough for her for 2 years of life. After 2 years, you need to start a stable fertilizer: in the spring with nitrogen (1 tbsp. L. Urea per 1 bucket of water for 1 bush), in the summer with vitamin-mineral fertilizing (by a bucket of organic fertilizers per bush), in the fall with phosphorus and potassium (1 possible l ash from wood for 1 bush).
The flowers of Sibiryachki are infertile, therefore, in order to get a crop, you need to plant pollinators on the plot that belong to the Honeysuckle family. As pollinators, you can choose any Altai, Siberian or Kamchatka variety, for example, “Sorceress”, “Tomichka”, “Kamchadalka”.
Did you know? There is a popular belief that edible honeysuckle berries can be distinguished from inedible berries by their color: only black and blue fruits can be eaten, but orange and red cannot.
Pest and Disease Control
Despite all the efforts of breeders, to develop a variety that is absolutely resistant to diseases and pests is almost impossible. Like other honeysuckle varieties, Sibiryachka is amenable to the negative influence of ailments.
Important! Since Sibiryachka belongs to the edible varieties, spraying with chemical preparations can be carried out only after harvesting.
Among the most common are:
- honeysuckle aphid. The presence of a small light yellow insect is indicated by twisted leaves of the plant, which rapidly turn yellow or become stained. A pest can cause growth retardation and even death.Effective means of combating honeysuckle aphids are solutions of "Actellica", "Confidora", "Rogor", "Aktara". For prevention, the bushes are sprayed with tobacco, garlic or pepper infusion in early summer;
- honeysuckle tick, which reports its presence with brown, shapeless spots on the foliage, the appearance of sooty fungi on the surface of the deciduous plate. Damaged leaves begin to fall prematurely. You can eliminate the intruder by spraying the honeysuckle with a solution of "Actellica", "Rotor", "Mauritius". Preventive measures, which should be carried out constantly, consist in weeding the soil under the crop, thinning thickened bushes, since moist, shaded and thickened conditions are a favorable environment for the appearance of a pest;
- honeysuckle - a small caterpillar that regales on the pulp and seeds of honeysuckle fruits. The pest can destroy the crop: the berries do not ripen, darken and crumble. An effective caterpillar control agent is the Inta-Vir preparation, the solution of which is prepared in strict accordance with the dosages indicated in the instructions. For prevention purposes, you can spray the bushes with infusion of potato or tomato tops;
- fungal diseases: ramulariosis - brown spotting on foliage, cercosporosis - brown spotting, powdery mildew - white spotting. Overcome fungal diseases will help spraying with a solution of "Topaz", "Fundazole." Prevention consists in timely loosening of soil under bushes and thinning plants.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The essence of the annual pruning and shaping of the bush is to remove dried and broken shoots, dried inflorescences and prematurely darkened leaves. Starting from the age of 15, old skeletal branches need to be cut at the level of the soil.This is called anti-aging pruning. When your honeysuckle turns 20 years old and you begin to notice a rapid decrease in yield indicators, that is, the need to cut the shrub completely, leaving the stumps 15–20 cm high.
It takes one season to grow the bush and it will yield another 5–10 years. The formation of the bush consists in thinning it. Indeed, dense honeysuckle shrubs are a direct path to plant diseases and pests.
Since Sibiryachka is a frost-resistant variety, bred specifically for Siberian conditions, special preparations for winter are not worth taking. There is no need to cover the bush, you just need to mulch the soil with peat or humus before the onset of frost.
Important! In horticulture, the facts of repeated flowering of honeysuckle in early autumn, provided long-term stable warm weather, are known. This phenomenon is not worth rejoicing because you will not only not receive a second crop, but also will not be able to pick up delicious berries for the next season. Therefore, as soon as you see the autumn buds, immediately pick them off.
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
Harvest of honeysuckle berries is harvested in June-July. Fruits easily come off the stalks, do not crumble and do not crumple. But due to the fact that their peel is too thin, they have medium transportability and are not stored as long as we would like. Shelf life of fresh honeysuckle berries lasts 2-3 days. They are just as transportable. You can extend the shelf life by drying or freezing fruits: in dried and frozen form, honeysuckle is stored for up to 1 year.
As you can see, thanks to the efforts of breeders, new opportunities have appeared to supply their own body with benefits. One of the sources of natural benefit is the Siberian honeysuckle berries. This variety harmoniously combines the best decorative qualities and gives a consistently high yield of excellent berries.