Characteristics and features of growing blackberries varieties Black Diamond (Black Diamond)
Many gardeners grow Black Diamond varieties on their beds. To get a good harvest, they select the best planting material and, adhering to the timing and planting scheme, achieve the desired result. Below is a description and description of this variety, breeding methods, diseases and pests, as well as the rules for care, collection and storage of crops.
This variety was bred from Oregon and Washington in the United States. Development was carried out in the city of San Francisco in 1997. The goal was to obtain a non-studded variety to optimize the process of automated machine harvesting. Translated into Russian, its name means "Black Diamond."
Blackberry is a conical berry of the family of the multi-colored genus Rubus. Being a shrub, it grows in forests and rivers of Eurasia and North America. Depending on the degree of maturity, the berry changes its color from green to brown, then to black. It has a dense texture, sweet taste with acidity and reaches a weight of 8-10 g. The bush is high and large, the shoots are half-spreading. There are several spikes at their base. Blackberries begin to bloom and bear fruit only in the second year in mid-June. Has large pink flowers. Berries ripen in mid-July - early August.
Did you know? The name of the blackberry comes from the word "hedgehog." This is due to the fact that the plant has small needles.
During the selection, scientists sought the presence of certain characteristics in the variety. So, the Black Diamond Black Diamond is characterized by high drought, frost resistance and a high yield.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The blackberry of this variety is quite resistant to frost and is able to withstand temperatures up to -27 ... -29 ° C. However, in winter it is recommended to cover it with film, spruce branches, straw or other materials that can let in fresh air. She also tolerates summer and dry weather, although her leaves may turn yellow and become dry. The fetus receives enough moisture due to the powerful root system of the plant.
The blackberry begins to bear fruit in mid-July - early August. When the berries ripen, from each bush it will be possible to collect them every other day for a month. In one season, you can get up to 35 kg from each bush.
Video: Black Diamond Black Diamond
Planting BlackBerry Black Diamond has its own characteristics. To get a good harvest, it is recommended to choose the right time and place in your garden. You should also select high-quality seed and adhere to the scheme of planting.
Autumn and spring days are excellent for planting seedlings, when the leaves on the trees have not yet blossomed. The best time will be the first of March. In the fall, this manipulation is carried out before steady frost sets in. In this case, the cuttings must be cut to 25 cm.
Important! For growing blackberries, a moderately fertile soil (loam, chernozem) with moderate acidity (5.5–6.5 pH). Sandy soil requires additional fertilizing with organic fertilizers.
The place to plant a blackberry should be well lit, since shaded bushes will not bring a quality crop. Do not place raspberries next to the blackberry beds so as not to expose the plant to disease. It is also recommended to change the landing site every 7 years.
Before proceeding to planting, it is necessary to clean the garden of weeds and other garbage, dig it.Then, planting pits should be prepared, observing each depth to 50 cm and an interval between them of about 100-120 cm. Add 5-6 kg of humus, 50 g of potassium sulfate and 100 g of superphosphate to each of them.
Selection and preparation of planting material
As a planting material, it is recommended to choose seedlings with closed roots, which should not be dry. It is recommended to choose material from a trusted seller. Seedlings should have 2 stems and at least 1 formed bud.
Did you know? Blackberries are 80% water.
The berries are grown in rows, orienting them from north to south and observing a distance of 2 m. This distance should not be reduced, because over time the bushes will grow and they will need free space. Walls, fences and other vertical structures located on the site should be located at a distance of at least 1 m from the blackberry.
Video: How to plant a blackberry
Filling the pit with manure and fertilizers, place a seedling in it, drop it on the ground and moisten it. It is recommended to install drip irrigation or irrigate the soil 2-3 times a week. To avoid waterlogging, it is recommended to loosen it periodically.
In the first year of life, the plant must be fed and covered with a layer of mulch. To increase yield dynamics, organic fertilizers and compost (5 kg / m²) should be applied. When the fruit begins to ripen, apply fertilizer containing potassium.
The best period for cutting blackberries is autumn, namely the time after the entire crop has already been harvested. To implement the procedure, it is necessary to stop all shoots, leaving only 7-8, cutting them to 1/3. If pruning is not performed, the growth of the shrub slows down, which subsequently complicates the harvest process. In the spring, this manipulation is carried out in order to get rid of frozen and withered shoots.
Harvesting and storage
The absence of spikes facilitates the harvesting process, but it is not necessary to carry it out manually, since the botanical characteristics of this variety allow the use of special equipment and machines. Blackberry berries of this variety tolerate long transportation and can be stored fresh in the refrigerator for up to 10 days.
The variety is very frost-resistant and is able to withstand temperatures up to -27 ... -29 ° C, but in winter it is better to provide shelter to the plant. To do this, you can use the following materials:
- roofing material;
- polymer film;
- tops, etc.
Blackberries are propagated in several ways:
- Apical layers. To do this, the top of the annual branch of the plant is bent to the ground and instilled. After some time, it will take root, and the seedling can be transplanted to a permanent place.
- Division. They dig a shrub, divide the roots into parts and plant them in a constant place, not forgetting to observe the distance between the beds. The length of the cuttings should be 6–9 cm, thickness - 1 cm.
- The seeds. After their selection, they must be stored in the refrigerator for about 3 days. Then, after wetting, they should be placed in the soil, deepened by 5–8 mm and stored for a month at a temperature of + 5 ° С. Then it should be increased to + 20 ° C, and after the first leaves appear, thin out. When the plant gets stronger, it is planted in open ground.
- Root processes. Separating the shoots in the spring from the base of the plant roots, they are placed in the Kornevin solution for 10 hours. The length of the shoots should be 10-15 cm. But with this type of reproduction, thorns can appear on the stalks of the blackberry.
Diseases and Pests
This blackberry variety is susceptible to attack by such pests:
- Spider and raspberry mites. Damage the buds, leaves and berries of the plant, eating away their contents. To prevent infection, it is recommended to spray the blackberry “Karbofos”. Use insecticides such as Fufafon, Actellik, Spark M, spraying them with leaves and flowers.
- Stem raspberry gall midge. Despite its miniature size (1.5–2.2 mm), this insect causes significant damage to all plants. The larvae laid down by females are able to penetrate into young shoots. This leads to bloating on the stems, which slows down the growth of blackberries and can lead to the death of the bush. To prevent the appearance of gall midges, it is not recommended to apply a lot of fertilizers containing nitrogen, since they provoke the exfoliation of the bark. Also regularly ventilate the room where the blackberry grows and thin out the beds. "Karbofos", "Calypso", "Karate" - a means to help eliminate the attack of an insect.
- Stem fly. The body of the insect reaches 6-7 mm. It lays larvae at the roots of blackberries at a depth of 5-6 cm. When the soil is warm enough (up to +12 ... + 13 ° С), the fly turns into a chrysalis and after 8-9 days into an adult. This occurs in May, just as the shoots of a blackberry begin to grow. Eating them, the harmful insect begins to multiply and affect the components of the plant. To combat the fly, it is recommended to process the blackberry “Karbofos” or “Actellik”.
The most common diseases of the bush are:
- Anthracnose. The reason for the appearance may be the non-observance of the distance between the rows and the pits, as a result of which the plant grows, affecting the neighboring bush. It affects the leaves, shoots and berries of the blackberry, leaving round small spots that have a gray color and a purple fringing. In the context of the development of the disease, the growth of berries begins to slow down, they dry and turn brown. To combat the disease, spray the stem and leaves with Bordeaux fluid (3%). Repeat the procedure after 7 days, but now the concentration of the drug should be 1%.
- Fungal diseases such as gray rot. It provokes the spread of rot, affecting inflorescences and berries. In this case, the shoots die off, and the spreading disease penetrates the flower and petals. To combat rot, you can use tools such as “Switch”, “Chorus” or “Teldor”.
- White spotting. A provoking factor is rainy weather and a fungal pathogen. It appears in the form of pale brown spots with a diameter of up to 3 mm. Their coloring changes over time to a lighter tone, forming a dark edging. Black spots also appear on the spots, which provokes the formation of holes on the leaves and drying of the stems. For the struggle they use such means as Agrozin, Emmochka, Baikal-M1.
Having got acquainted with the history of selection, the botanical description and the rules for growing blackberries, you can get a good harvest. At the same time, use modern methods of combating diseases and pests so that it is of high quality.