Fertilizing and fertilizing currants for the winter
Currant is one of the most healthy berries, which has an amazing vitamin complex, and its pleasant dessert taste leaves few people indifferent. Perhaps, it is for these reasons that not a single summer cottage can do without this wonderful shrub. But in order for the plant to develop well and bear fruit, it must be periodically fed, and one of the important periods is autumn.
The role of autumn nutrition for currant bushes
Autumn top dressing is very important for currant bushes. During this period, the process of laying new fruit buds occurs, so you need to feed the crop for better yield in the next season.
As a rule, during the growing season, the currant bush takes a lot of vitamins and minerals from the soil for its growth and development. Even more of them leave during the ripening period, and by the end of the harvest, the soil becomes quite poor, requiring additional nutrition.
The use of fertilizers in the fall also lies in the fact that the nutritional composition will give currants the strength to withstand various negative factors, such as temperature changes, the influence of pathogens, and so on. According to experienced gardeners, if you feed the currants well in the autumn, you can do without bending down the shoots and sheltering them for the winter.
Currant top dressing is carried out along with the preparation of shrubs for winter, and some immediately after harvesting. More often, work is carried out in mid-late October, when the culture goes into a dormant state. It is important to manage fertilizing before freezing.
The end of November is the boundary period for which currants should be prepared for wintering.
Nitrogen-containing fertilizers and superphosphate are best applied in the soil in a dosed manner, once every 2 weeks, you can start immediately after harvesting. Organics - humus and compost - can be introduced even in late autumn. These fertilizers decompose for a long time and just have time to nourish the soil by spring.
Important! By mid-September, it is better to stop fertilizing with fertilizers with a high nitrogen content — they will prolong the wakefulness of the bush to severe frosts, as a result, the culture may die.
How to feed and fertilize currants
The list of fertilizers for currants, as well as for any fruit crops, is quite large. They are divided into three main groups: mineral, organic and complex. In the autumn period, you can use all 3 types, observing the dosage. The rule “the more the better” is inappropriate here, since an overdose or untimely applied formulations can cause negative consequences.
Video: care for blackcurrant bushes in autumn
Mineral fertilizing is most needed for currants in the autumn, especially fertilizers with a high content of potassium and phosphorus. During the growing season, the shrub took a lot of nutrients from the soil, and the fruiting period significantly weakened the crop. In addition, the plant needs to stock up on vitamins in order to improve immunity and safely survive the winter.
For feeding currants, it is best to choose mineral mixtures containing immediately a number of nutrients:
- Superphosphate. The tool ranks first among fertilizers in the content of phosphorus. It also contains substances such as magnesium, calcium, sulfur, which positively affects the metabolism of the plant, increases productivity, provides resistance to diseases and promotes the development of the root system. Fertilizer is available in the form of powder or granules that need to be diluted in water. It can be of different concentrations - simple superphosphate and double, respectively, and the dosage will be different. If double superphosphate is enough about 40 g per 1 m², then take a simple 2 times more (80 g). Fertilize the soil with fertilizer or dilute it in water, adding other useful components.
- Ammonium nitrate. This is an excellent fertilizer, the introduction of which in the autumn period has an additional plus: top dressing increases the resistance of currants to various negative factors, enhances the plant's immunity.The saltpeter is bred with water or sprinkled in the soil in a dry form, dug to a depth of not more than 10 cm. You can feed currants with fertilizer at any time, but the dosage will vary. In spring and summer, it is enough to add 20-30 g per 1 bush, and in autumn, when the soil is already quite depleted, you need to increase the dosage to 40-50 g per 1 bush.
- Potassium salt. Fertilizers of this kind (with a high content of potassium) make plants more resistant to adverse conditions: climate change, pests and diseases. Top dressing is scattered under currants over the entire area of the root system (along the crown contour) and dug up, after which the soil is abundantly watered. For 1 bush, 20-25 g of the drug is spent. The applied top dressing quickly dissolves and nourishes the soil.
The peculiarity of organic fertilizers lies in their natural origin. They contain a huge potential of substances that can enrich the soil and give good nutrition to currants and other crops. There are such main types of organic fertilizing as potato peeling, wood ash, urea, manure, chicken droppings and compost.
Did you know? In ancient times, in countries preaching Buddhism, the soil was fertilized with human feces, since it was forbidden to use manure. The feces of the rich were much more valued, because their food was more high-calorie.
Potato peeling is the most affordable of all fertilizers, because we all love this vegetable and consume it almost daily, so collecting the material will not be difficult. The use of it for currants is very large, since it contains a lot of starch and potassium, as well as other mineral components.
In the conditions of a summer cottage, you can install a box for collecting potato peels or immediately send it to a compost pit. If you live the main time of the year in the city, the peel can be dried and frozen. Before entering the soil, the material is poured with hot water and left to soak for 2-3 days.
According to the summer residents, feeding currants with potato peelings gives an excellent result, because. shrubs like starch and glucose found in vegetables. In autumn, after pruning the bushes and cleaning the site of various biological debris, fertilizers are scattered around the bush (1.5–2 kg) and dug up with soil, and a layer of mulch is spread on top.
Effective and affordable fertilizer in horticulture and gardening is wood ash. It contains all the necessary substances for the good development of currants. Especially there is a lot of potassium and phosphorus in it, and there is practically no nitrogen, therefore, as an autumn top dressing, ash acts as a universal remedy.
Dry soil can be fertilized with ash - then under each bush of currant you need to make 3 cups of the product and immediately fill it into the soil. A liquid solution is also prepared from ash, dissolving 100-150 g in 10 l of water.
To do this, prepare a liquid solution as follows: 300 g of ash are poured with boiling water and boiled over low heat for 20-30 minutes, then they are left to stand for 1 hour and filtered.
The resulting broth is poured into a bucket of settled water and 50 g of liquid soap is added there.Shrubs are sprayed on a dry autumn evening.
Urea (urea) is one of the popular fertilizers used by summer residents. Unlike all organic fertilizers discussed in this section, it is an artificial agent - a chemical compound with a solid structure in the form of granules.
Urea fertilizer has such a name, since the substance was first removed from human urine. The discovery was made by the French chemist Hilaire Maren Ruel in 1773
The product is diluted with water (50–70 g per 10 l), and the soil is watered with the resulting liquid and sprayed with shrubs. Such treatments help increase soil productivity.
It should be noted that the microorganisms contained in urea do not decompose immediately, but after a certain period. Fertilizing the soil in the fall, there is a risk that nutrients will be washed away deep in the spring in the spring, so spring feeding is preferred.
If we talk about useful biologically active substances, here we can distinguish nitrogen, which is most in manure compared to others, such as potassium or phosphorus. At the same time, manure can cause a supersaturation with nitrogen compounds, if abused. As a result, the currant bush will be saturated with nitrates.
The advantages of manure are that it is suitable for any soil composition, quickly nourishes it (within a week), and the effect lasts for a long period - about 4 years.
Manure is introduced into the soil in liquid form, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5. 10 liters should be spent on one bush. At the same time, shallow grooves are made around the shrub - a medium is poured into them to evenly soak the soil throughout the area under which the roots are common.
Important! Manure can be used as fertilizer only in a rotted form. Pathogenic microbes, parasites, and weed seeds can be stored in fresh manure.
Compost, perhaps, is one of the most ancient fertilizers used by mankind in agriculture. It is prepared from various biological debris - food waste, plant debris, wood chips and scraps after shearing.
As a result of compost application, currant shrubs receive food that does not contain salts of heavy metals, nitrates and other harmful substances. This is a good alternative to manure, and in some ways even surpassing it - in the process of composting, all pathogenic microbes and pathogens die.
In the autumn period, you need to feed the soil around the currant as late as possible, in anticipation of cooling, otherwise the currant can "catch on" and begin to grow.
Fertilizer consumption - 3-4 spades for 1 bush. The advantage of feeding currants in the fall is also that the fertilizer will warm the soil, and in the spring it will be possible not to worry about early feeding.
By the level of benefits for currants, chicken droppings can be compared with complex mineral fertilizers. It contains a lot of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus - substances that help the plant regain strength after fruiting and survive the winter well.
Another big plus is the presence in the composition of the bacteriophage - substances that have the ability to infect bacterial cells, due to which the litter acts simultaneously as a disinfectant.
At the same time, you need to use top dressing carefully so as not to cause an overdose. The fact is that, in addition to useful components, chicken droppings contain a considerable percentage of uric acid, so it is advisable to mix the product with peat or water before adding it to the soil to reduce the concentration.
If you decide to make top dressing with peat (soil), you need to mix the litter in a ratio of 1: 2. The fertilizer is mixed with water, diluting 1 kg of litter in 15–20 l. Watered with a solution directly under the bush. It is necessary to try so that the product does not fall on the leaves, as a burn may form. For an adult bush, a portion is 10 liters, and for a young bush - 5 liters.
For top dressing, it is very convenient to use complex mineral fertilizers, which contain many useful components for currants.
The most popular are the following formulations:
- Diammofoska. This complex fertilizer contains a large percentage of potassium, which is necessary for currants in the fall to restore strength. If it enters the soil, top dressing immediately begins to act, strengthening the shrub. Young plants fertilize at the rate of 10 g per 1 m², and adults (over 2 years) - 20 g per 1 m². The procedure is carried out in the preparation of currants for winter, along with digging.
- Kalimagnesia. Another complex composition, the main components of which are potassium, magnesium and sulfur. As a result of fertilizer application, currant becomes resistant to viruses and pathogenic bacteria, it is easier to survive winter frosts. The product is scattered on the soil surface and dug up, spending 20 g per 1 m². The drug has an equally positive effect on the plant and soil, is well absorbed and is a universal remedy suitable not only for currants, but also for other garden plants.
Fertilizing currants in the fall, you will prepare favorable conditions for a good wintering culture, strengthen its immunity to many diseases and pests. In spring, the currant bush, being saturated with useful substances, will grow well, and in the summer it will give an excellent harvest.