Ural grape - appearance and main characteristics of the variety
Gooseberry Ural grape, of course, grows well in the Urals, as well as in other regions of the country. The variety is characterized by large-fruited, high productivity and excellent taste of berries. A detailed description of its features, agricultural farming techniques, reviews of gardeners about it read further in the article.
Variety description Ural grape
Gooseberries are distinguished by several key concepts: maturity and disease resistance. Ural grape belongs to the early ripening varieties with fruiting in July.
Winter-hardy gooseberries do not need shelter for the winter, rarely affected by fungal diseases. Disease can contribute to a lot of thickening, poor ventilation and a shaded area, so try to plant bushes in sunny areas and control the conditions in which your bush grows.
The variety is self-fertile. He does not need companion pollinators. But, according to gardeners, if several different varietal bushes grow nearby, then the yield increases by 30%. An adult bush of the Ural grape variety will give you up to 7 kg of a crop of large tasty berries per year.
The variety was bred at the Ural branch of the RAS “Ural Federal Agrarian Research Institute”. Introduced to the State Register in 1979 and is one of the oldest varieties in the country. Bred by pollination of Andreev No. 1 with pollen from Sverdlovsky and Raspberry.
Did you know? There are two main types of gooseberries. — European with the scientific name Ribes uva-crispa and American - Ribes hirtellum. Both belong to the same family, but are different species. American gooseberries are generally smaller, but less damaged by mold. European berries are larger, but these varieties are often sick.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
The variety is very reliable in terms of yield. He begins bearing fruit in early July. Berries ripen almost simultaneously. And that makes him especially popular.
Ural grapes are large emerald berries with an excellent dessert flavor. They are perfect for fresh use as well as winter blanks. The sugar content in berries is 9.9%, and ascorbic acid is 23.5 mg.
The variety is characterized by the following features:
- basic characteristic: early, table, winter-hardy, resistant to pests and diseases;
- bush: tall, not too compact, with great growth power and medium thickening;
- shoots: thick, straight, without pubescence, very spiky, located at a slight slope to the vertical;
- spikes: light shade, located along the entire length of the shoots and are perpendicular to it;
- leaves: large;
- leaf plate: five-lobed, wrinkled, with a blunt tip, with pronounced sheen, straight, fairly dense, with a serrated edge;
- angle between the base of the plate and the petiole: 90 degrees;
- inflorescences: one-flowered;
- flowers: medium, raspberry buds, white and pink petals;
- weight of berries: average - 2.4 g, maximum weight - 4 g;
- shape: oval, classic;
- color: emerald green;
- pulp: juicy;
- taste: sweet and sour;
- peel: thin, without pubescence, with acidity;
- sugar content: 9.9 on the Brix scale;
- productivity: 16 kg / ha; 3.4-4 kg of berries for one bush at the age of 5 years; 5-7 kg of berries for an adult plant.
Did you know? Green gooseberries contain twenty times more vitamin C than an orange. It is also rich in vitamins A, B1, B5 and B6, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, potassium and copper.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Like any other variety, the Ural grape has a number of undeniable advantages and has some disadvantages.
- high winter hardiness: maximum freezing is 2 points;
- high productivity: up to 7 kg from an adult bush;
- good taste properties of berries;
- as soon as the crop ripens, the berries will begin to crumble - they are very easily separated from the stem;
- high susceptibility to spotting - this defect is not stated in the registration card of the variety in the State Register, but some gardeners talk about its presence in the same way as about the average susceptibility of powdery mildew;
- strong spikes complicate gardener care for the bush.
Gooseberries love the cool climate. And this makes it a suitable candidate for cultivation in many regions. Plant it on a site from early spring to late fall.It is well rooted. But avoid wetlands or areas where the soil dries quickly. The most important condition for the proper development of the plant is the condition of the soil, this is more important than the timing of planting. Bushes of 2-3 years of age, with a well-balanced crown, are well suited for planting. It should have at least 5-6 branches. Also, the bush should have a well-developed root system.
The distance between individual plants should be at least 1.2–1.5 m. If a decorative hedge is made from gooseberries, the minimum distance will be 38–50 cm from each other.The root zone is necessarily mulched with wood chips, sawdust or straw. This will help to maintain moisture in the soil, the loose structure of the soil and will inhibit the growth of weeds. Watering is rare, but not less than once every 14 days.
Despite tolerance to a wide range of soil conditions, gooseberries prefer moisture-retaining, well-drained soil. Avoid sandy dry soils. If the required conditions do not exist in your garden, then create them in the place where you plan to grow gooseberries. Both light and very heavy soils can be improved by adding a large amount of highly degradable organic matter. Bring it to the site before landing.
Gooseberries need an open and sunny area, protected from strong winds. Although the plant does not like the summer heat, it manages to bear fruit before its onset and therefore grows well in areas with any lighting except a deep shadow.
Important! Bushes should be planted at the same depth at which they grew, in the nursery before they were dug up. Do not plant them deeper, because this stimulates the growth of basal shoots. At the main stem, the soil line will be clearly visible, so you won’t be mistaken.
Planting and care, pollination
Prepare the landing pit. Depth and width are determined by the size of the root layer. But the width should be 2 times its width in order to simplify the possibility of development for the roots. Mix excavated soil with compost or rotted manure. Put the piece in the hole. Then set the bush on top, spreading the roots. Add enriched soil around the roots, compact to fix them. Water abundantly so that the earth settles. Cover the trunk area with mulch.
Gooseberry care will consist of:
- periodic watering;
- fertilizer application;
Fertilizers are applied every spring before buds open. You can choose organic compounds: compost, rotted manure or synthetic fertilizers. From such fertilizers, nutrients are released gradually, which meets the needs of gooseberries. Inorganic can be represented by a complex composition, which includes nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, or only a few of them.
An exemplary composition may be as follows:
- ammonium nitrate: 50 g;
- superphosphate: 50 g;
- potash fertilizer: 30 g.
Important! Gooseberries need a small amount of nitrogen. Its excess will lead to rapid, but weak growth. This will make the plant an easy target for pests and diseases.
Pest and Disease Control
Not a single plant that grows in the garden is safe from pests. They are able to deprive you of the harvest, so it is so important to see the signs of their vital activity in time and take action.
The main pests:
- Spider mite - These are microscopic insects that settle on the underside of leaves. Their traces are small dots on the leaves, next to which the plant tissue discolors and dries. Ticks multiply actively in dry and hot weather, so moist air and soil can prevent tick infection. Of the folk ways to deal with it - spraying plants with wormwood solution. To do this, half a bucket of herbs is poured with boiling water and when the broth cools down, sprayed.
- Gooseberry sawfly - This is a moth that lays eggs on the bushes. Its larvae are green caterpillars with black dots. They damage both fruits and leaves. Against them, spraying with a solution of wormwood or tobacco is also suitable. A feature of the sawfly is that up to 3 generations of the pest appear in a year, so spraying should be carried out several times a season.
- Gooseberry fire - yellow butterfly with black stripes on the wings. Its larvae have a green torso and a black head. Damage berries by gnawing them. Such fruits turn red, rot and fall. Berries affected by the caterpillars are necessarily removed, and the plant is sprayed with infusion of wood ash - 1/3 of the ash bucket is poured with water, stirred and sprayed.
- Aphids also capable of affecting the plant. These are small green insects living in colonies on leaves or their petioles. To combat them, spraying with a solution of insecticidal soap is used.
- Birds, especially pigeons, can cause many problems, including eating seedlings, buds, leaves, fruits. To protect the crop from them, the bushes are covered with a special mesh. Scarecrows and mechanisms for scaring away birds work, but only for a while. The most reliable way of protection is a grid.
Given that any tracks are sure to cause damage, it is important to know how to prevent them from appearing. Insect larvae winter in the ground around gooseberries, in the upper layers of the soil. With the onset of heat, they awaken and rise to the bush. Then the egg-laying phase begins. This happens in May. Therefore, all measures to destroy soil pests must be taken in April in order to stop them before leaving the soil. By the end of May, caterpillars will appear from the eggs. If this happens, then spray them with the appropriate drugs.
Important! Shrubs should not be sprayed during flowering. This will destroy pollinators, and you will be left without a crop.
Most diseases are caused by soil fungi. They get good conditions for development if the weather is damp. Also, thick and shady areas contribute to this.
Prevention of fungal diseases - spraying gooseberries with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid go copper sulphate. Their main active ingredient is copper. Its ions inhibit the activity of pathogenic microflora.
The main diseases of gooseberry:
- Powdery mildew - fungal disease. Her symptom is a white powdery coating on the leaves and fruits. Affected fruits fall off, and the leaves curl and also fade. The method of control is spraying with a 3% solution of iron sulfate (30 g / 10 l of water).
- Anthracnose also caused by fungus. Its signs: brown spots on fruits and leaves. They grow rapidly, as a result of foxes fall. Disease contributes to damp weather. To combat use spraying with a solution of colloidal sulfur, drugs "Homycin" or "Kaptan."
- White spotting - also a disease of fungal nature. At first, its spots are dark, but gradually they brighten from the center to the edge. If there are too many, then the leaves may fall. Spray bushes with a solution of copper sulfate.
- Rust - fungal disease, manifested in the form of a red coating on the leaves and fruits. Against it also use spraying with a solution of Bordeaux liquid 1%.
- Gray rot affects shoots and fruits. Plaque coated berries quickly rot. Insects can be rot carriers, so the fight against it begins with the fight against caterpillars, weevils and other pests. Affected parts of the plant are removed.
- Verticillus wilting develops on weakened plants. Since the fungus in this case affects the root system, it is better to remove such a plant along with the soil. And treat the remaining soil with a solution of Fundazol 2%.
Remember that all diseases are exacerbated by thickened plantings and dampness, so monitor these settings near your bushes.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Pruning is necessary in several cases: to rejuvenate the bush, increase productivity, and crown formation. Form it in several stages. To get started, purchase a sharp secateurs and before trimming each next plant, be sure to disinfect it with alcohol or an aqueous solution of whiteness, in order to exclude the possibility of transferring diseases from one plant to another.
Did you know? It is believed that gooseberries were first grown as a garden culture in the 16th century in English and Dutch gardens. And by 1800, the popularity of this plant grew so much that the British even began to create gooseberry clubs and hold competitions for its cultivation.
- When planting a seedling, only damaged branches or roots are cut. The remaining shoots shorten up to 4 buds from the soil level.
- In the second year, leave 7 powerful shoots and cut them to spring to a height of 30 cm. The remaining branches are cut a little lower - up to 20 cm. Weak shoots are removed.
- In the third year, the main branches are simply shortened by 10-15 cm and root growth, as well as branches damaged in winter, are removed.
- Since by the 4th year the bush is quite powerful, several intersecting branches or duplicating each other can form. They need to be removed and the bush thickened.
With the end of summer, insects settle in the ground for wintering. To destroy part of them, a deep digging of the soil is carried out. All plant residues are removed: grass, fallen leaves. They can also winter pests and spores of fungi.
Be sure to spend autumn dressing. This will help the plant to stock up on forces and easier to tolerate winter.The fertilizer that you need is sold in gardening stores and is called Autumn. After you make, be sure to water the trunk circles well. Remove dried branches, as well as those that are too close to the ground.
Harvesting and transportation
Gooseberries can be harvested from mid-summer. They ripen almost simultaneously, but the harvest can be divided into several days, picking berries, as they ripen. Remember that the bushes are very spiked. Harvest in clothing covering your hands. Gloves can also be used. Insufficiently ripened berries can become a filling for pies, compote, sauce or jam. They are also convenient to transport due to their better resistance to shaking during transportation.
This variety sings in early July. Maturity is determined by taste. Unripe berries - sour and sugary taste. As they mature, their sugar content increases.
Harvest can be frozen for future use. If you grow it for commercial purposes, then the berries that are not sold on time can be frozen and transferred to a processing plant in the future. Transport frozen fruits in refrigeration units.Growing gooseberries is not a difficult process. Just follow the simple rules of care, and you will definitely get a good harvest of these tasty and healthy berries. If you are already growing this variety, then do not forget to share your tips in the comments.