Whitecurrant: growing and care
The key to a rich harvest and the health of the bush as a whole is to comply with the rules of planting, cultivation and reproduction. Like any other shrub, currant has some agricultural features that are easy to perform even for beginner gardeners. Taking into account the recommendations of specialists, you will become the owner of fruitful bushes of this type of currant.
Methods of propagation of white currant
Europe and Siberia are considered the birthplace of this plant, therefore it is not surprising that it survives so beautifully in our latitudes. Its wild forms can be found in forests, on banks and in river channels. To land on the site, you will need to determine how it can be propagated. The most popular method is considered to be cuttings.. The positive side of this method is that you plant the varieties that you need without any hassle.
Did you know? In the handful of currant is the daily rate of ascorbic acid for an adult.
In order for the planted stem to be guaranteed to take root, the following recommendations should be observed:
- harvesting of planting material is carried out before the onset of frost;
- use only annual, healthy shoots;
- cuttings cut into a length of 25-30 cm;
- after cutting, dipped the ends of the cuttings in paraffin or garden var in order to prevent moisture loss;
- if it is not possible to plant the material immediately, then it is stored in this form in the refrigerator until planting;
- before putting into the ground, you need to cut off the protective paraffin film with a sharp knife;
- a segment with 4 kidneys (minimum) is placed in the ground, and no more than two formed kidneys are left on the surface;
- make fertilizer (mulch) - peat or humus.
It is important to keep the soil moist during this period. Therefore, watering should be regular, but not excessive.
Important! Before planting, the topsoil should be collected and set aside. The deep part of the soil must be mixed with fertilizers and sprinkled with a mixture of plant roots.
Currants are propagated by horizontal layering.. To do this, in the spring, under the mother bushes, make furrows with a depth of 10 cm. Then place two-year-old shoots in them and fix them with hairpins to the soil surface. Sprinkle the middle of the shoot with earth. All summer abundantly water and mulch the land where the processes are buried. When autumn comes, the rooted shoots need to be separated from the uterine bush and transplanted to the designated place. If rooting has gone bad, then you should wait with this procedure until next year.
With the correct implementation of all recommendations, you can significantly increase the number of varietal bushes in the garden
The planting process is considered the most important, since the further growth and development of the plant depends on it. Responsibly should concern not only the selection of planting material, place, soil, but also fertilizers. Timely conducted agrotechnical measures will accelerate plant survival, and will also contribute to subsequent abundant fruiting.
How to choose the right place for landing
When inspecting your site, pay attention to a sunny place that is blown by the wind, but without strong drafts. If the amount of light is not enough, then the color of the berries will be less intense, and the taste will be more acidic. Groundwater should lie at a depth of 2 m, not higher.
Did you know? There are self-fertile varieties of this plant, but the maximum amount of yield can be obtained only by pollination of currants with other varieties.
Do not plant the bush in low places where moisture will periodically accumulate and cause various diseases.Under such conditions, lichens and mosses develop, which prevent the plant from fully growing. Regarding soils, currants are unpretentious. But best for it are light sandy loamy or loamy soils. Soil acidity should be neutral.
How to choose the right seedlings
It doesn’t matter if you pick a seedling in the bazaar, in the garden center or take it from friends, carefully examine it before planting. Appearance can say a lot: diseases, pests and general condition.
Your attention should attract:
- Roots. Ideally, there should be 2 main ones (approximately 40 cm long), as well as many subordinate clauses. The root system must be moist, as a dry one may not recover after planting.
- Branching. A healthy shoot must have shoots. If they are not, then do not buy the plant.
- Diseases and parasites. The presence of eggs, larvae, mold or rot immediately indicates that the plant is infected. By planting it on your site, you endanger other plants.
Fertilizer and soil preparation
Planting can be done both in spring and autumn. Many prefer the autumn period, during which rooting will take place and the plant will fully begin its development in the spring. It happens that during the winter months there is little snow and soil freezing is noted. In this case, it is advisable to land in the spring.
It is necessary to start work when the soil is thawing in order to be in time before the kidneys open. The site must be dug up and fertilizers applied - 100-150 g of granular superphosphate, 3-4 kg of organics, 20-30 g of potassium sulfate. Dig a hole 40 × 50 cm.
Did you know? A decoction of dry leaves of currant increases the healing properties of antibiotics for dysentery.
For better rooting, seedlings should be placed in holes at an angle of 40–45 °. Before placing currants in a prepared hole, inspect the plant and remove all damaged and dried shoots. Dip the root system in a clay mash, which will prevent the rhizome from drying out. Spread the roots throughout the pit and cover with the rest of the earth. After tamping the earth, you need to water a seedling of 7-10 liters of water. You should be careful with chemicals, otherwise you can cause a chemical burn to the roots.
A gap of 1 m is left between the bushes. Such a scheme will help eliminate the likelihood of plants shading each other. Regarding top dressing, then use organic, nitrogen or phosphorus. The plant does not tolerate chlorine. The selection of universal fertilizers should be carried out regarding the composition of your soil.
White Currant Care
The rules for caring for this plant are quite simple. White currant tolerates frosts. Not afraid of her lowering the temperature to -45 ° C. White currants, in comparison with other varieties of currants, are less affected by diseases and insects. Regularly weed weeds - their root system can inhibit the normal development and growth of currants.
After swelling of the kidneys, from time to time irrigate the soil with hot water around (70 ° C) to destroy the pests in it. In each season, certain manipulations must be performed. Properly conducted procedures are the key to a rich future crop.
Watering is very important during the period of development and fruiting of the bush. Attention should be paid to ensure that there is no stagnation of water. And to avoid loss of moisture and the formation of a crust after watering, the soil is mulched with grass or peat. In the spring during dry weather, irrigation should be carried out every 3-4 days.
On especially hot days, water should be added more often. But if there will be a drop in temperature or strong winds, then limit watering. During flowering and fruit ripening, the need for water increases. Lack of moisture leads to a decrease in the size of berries and a slowdown in growth.
Did you know? Berries of white currant are able to remove harmful substances from the body, as well as radionuclides. That is why they need to be included in the diet for those who work in hazardous industries.
When choosing a watering method, give preference to drip. Thus, water will flow directly to the roots and, due to its small but constant volume, there will be no excess moisture. In the autumn, watering does not stop. The quantity should be as follows: 3-5 buckets per 1 m². The soil should be moistened 40-50 cm deep.
Many gardeners say that in the first year after planting, it is not necessary to fertilize additionally. The main amount fell into the ground when landing. Care and further feeding should be carefully thought out. The amount of chemicals should not exceed the recommended standards.
The feeding scheme is as follows:
- in the second year of the plant’s vegetation: organic or 25-30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m²;
- in subsequent years: 60-80 g of ammonium nitrate, 100-150 g of superphosphate, 30-40 g of potassium chloride.
The application of nitrogen fertilizers can be carried out every year, but phosphorus and potash fertilizers can be applied to the soil once every 2 years. Remember that any fertilizer can have both positive and negative effects on the crop.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Like blackcurrant, white also requires the formation of a crown and trimming excess shoots. Pruning is necessary in order to get a rich harvest and improve the plant. They are manipulated in autumn or early spring (before the movement of juices).
Gardeners recommend sanitary pruning after fruiting - in the summer. Red and white currants have few shoots of zero order. Their thickening is less, and fruiting is much longer - 15-20 years than that of the aronia variety. That is why whitecurrant is not so demanding for pruning.
Important! Some varieties of white currant, such as Versailles, are resistant to powdery mildew.
Immediately after planting, you need to trim the shoots, leaving 3 buds. It is this technique that will form the future crown of the bush. 7 years after planting, you need to remove 3-4 of the oldest branches annually, and instead you need to leave the same number of young ones. Ideally, about 20 shoots, whose age does not exceed 8 years, should be “present” on the plant. From 6 years of bush growth, all annual root shoots are removed.
Thinning and trimming excess shoots will help prevent insect invasion and the development of diseases. In addition, the bush will delight you with a richer harvest.
Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c)
Subject to the recommendations on plant care described above in the review, you can count on not only collecting a rich harvest of healthy treats, but also providing your family with vitamin berries in the winter. The agricultural technology of growing white currants is not so complicated and even a beginner gardener will be able to do it.